Grozny (other spellings: Grozni, Groznyy) is a city located in the North Caucasus Federal District of Russia. It is the capital of Chechnya Republic. The city stands on both banks of the Sunzha River, the tributary of the Terek River.
Grozny population is about 283,700 (2015), the land area - 324 sq. km.
The phone code is +7 8712, the postal codes are 364000-364099.
Grozny was founded in 1818, when the fortress Groznaya was built. It was the military outpost of the Russian Empire that played an important role during the Caucasian War. It was populated by the Terek Cossacks.
After the Caucasus War, in 1869, the settlement received the name Grozny (meaning “fearsome”). The town was growing slowly before the discovery of oil, happened in the beginning of the 20th century. Soon, Grozny became the center of the Russian oil fields in the Caucasus region.
During the Soviet times, Grozny was several times repopulated by Russians or by Chechens and Ingush. For example, before the World War II, the population of Grozny included a lot of Chechens and Ingush people, but, in 1944, almost all of them were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberian regions of the USSR for “collaboration” with Nazi Germany.
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Later, after Stalin’s death, Chechens and Ingush people were allowed to return to the city, while the Russian population began to leave it. And, by the end of 1960, the Russian population was less than Chechens and Ingush. In 1989, the population of Grozny was about 400,000 people.
With the end of the USSR, the city became the center of the Chechen separatist government headed by Dzhokhar Dudaev. After several tries to overthrow Dudayev and return the region under the control of the Russian government, the first Russian President, Boris Yeltsin, ordered to return control over the region by military force.
The first Chechen War began in the winter of 1994. Grozny was captured by the Russian army after heavy fighting in February, 1995. A lot of buildings and infrastructure objects were damaged or destroyed, because of the Russian Air Force and artillery strikes.
But resistance was not ended, and numerous Chechen guerrilla raids continued to operate in Grozny from the nearby mountains. In August 1996, the city was recaptured by Chechen guerrilla in a surprise attack. The battle ended after a ceasefire (in 1996). A peace treaty was signed between Russia and the Chechen Republic in 1997.
Chechens changed the name of the city to Dzhokhar after their first leader. At that time, almost all Russians fled it.
During the Second Chechen War, Grozny became the center of fighting again. And once again it was heavily damaged. In 2003, the United Nations called Grozny the most destroyed city on the planet. In 2005, rail service with other parts of Russia was resumed.
Apartment building in Grozny city
Grozny city climate is temperate continental with mild winters, long and hot summers. The city is not protected from the cold northern winds, and therefore, in contrast to the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar region, winters are colder here. The average temperature in January is -3.2 degrees Celsius, in July - +23.9 degrees C.
Large-scale reconstruction of the city was carried out in recent years. The airport “Grozny” offers flights to Moscow.
The main objects of the cultural life of Grozny:
- Grozny Russian Drama Theater named after M. Lermontov (Kirov Avenue, 13a),
- Chechen State Drama Theater named after Kh. Nuradilov (Esambaev Avenue, 9),
- Chechen State Theater for Young People (Staropromyslovskoye Highway, 36),
- Chechen State Youth Theater Serlo (Theater Square, 1/75),
- The State Symphony Orchestra of the Chechen Republic,
- The National Library of the Chechen Republic (at the intersection of Dagestan (Ugryumov) Street and Lorsanov Street),
- The Republican Children’s Library of the Chechen Republic (part of the National Library),
- The National Museum of the Chechen Republic (Lorsanov Street),
- Chechen State Philharmonic (Theater Square, 1/75).
The Press House in Grozny
Grozny reconstruction in process
Sunni Islam is the main religion in Grozny, as well as throughout Chechnya. In the center of the city, you can see a large Islamic complex with a total area of almost 14 hectares.
On its territory, there are the mosque “Heart of Chechnya” (the largest in Europe), the office of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Chechnya with the residence of the mufti of Chechnya, the Russian Islamic University named after Kunta-Haji Kishiev, Islamic library, a dormitory for students and a hotel. The mosque even has its own TV and radio studios.
Grozny is the home city of the Russian Premier League football club “FC Terek” playing in Sultan Bilimkhanov stadium.
- “Grozny-City” Hotel. Address: Akhmad Kadyrov Avenue, 8/1. Tel.: 8 8712 229 60 00;
- “Terek” Hotel. Griboyedov Street, 10. Tel.: 8 8712 22 49 85;
- “Arena-City” Hotel. Polyarnikov Street, 52. Tel.: 8 8712 22 64 01;
- “Zama” Hotel. Chukotskaya Street, 36. Tel.: 8 8712 33 30 95;
- “Stolitsa” Hotel. Mitaev Street, 51. Tel.: 8 928 479 95 95;
- “Caucasus” Hotel. Rosa Luxemburg Street, 8. Tel.: 8 8712 22 30 51;
- “Four Seasons” Hotel. Mayakovsky Street, 5. Tel.: 8 8712 22 27 43.